“The Nation that makes a great distinction between its scholars and its warriors will have its thinking done by cowards and its fighting done by fools.”

Lieutenant-General Sir William Francis Butler, on the importance of intelligence in both scholars and soldiers.  

Although the quote is often attributed to the 4th century BC Greek philosopher Thucydides it was in fact first written by Butler, a British general who rose to prominence during Britain’s colonial campaigns in Africa during the late 19th century.

Machine Carbine, Experimental Model No.2 (MCEM 2)
Like BSA’s EMC 1949 the MCEM 2 manufactured by Enfield was one of several attempts to design a new submachine gun to replace the STEN for the British military.  Like the EMC the Machine Carbine, Experimental Model 2 (MCEM 2) had some revolutionary design features.  
The MCEM 2 was designed by a Polish emigre, Lieutenant Jerzy Podsędkowski working at the Royal Small Arms Factory at Enfield  during the late 1940s.   It featured one of the first uses of a telescopic bolt, this dramatically shortened the length of the weapon by having part of the bolt surround the breech and part of the gun’s barrel rather than have the bolt behind the breech. 
The MCEM 2 was one of a series of experimental submachine guns developed by Enfield.  This series included the MCEM 1 designed by Harold Turpin, co-designer of the STEN gun, and a slightly more conventional design the MCEM 3.  There may have been up to as many as six MCEM designs.
The MCEM 2 fed from an 18-round box magazine which was loaded through the weapon’s pistol grip.  This feature coupled with the MCEM 2’s telescopic bolt are both also seen in the Uzi which was designed several years later.
The MCEM 2’s small size made it more of a machine pistol than a submachine gun, with its shoulder stock able to double as a canvas holster.  The grip magazine housing gave the short submachine gun stability making it easy to handle one handed.  The MCEM 2 would have made an excellent side arm for mobile troops, tank & crews - perhaps issued instead of a pistol or carbine.  
Chambered in 9mm and weighing just 2.5kg the MCEM 2 used a blowback action with the striker positioned at the rear of the receiver with a small portion of the bolt to the rear of the breech and the rest surrounding the barrel.   The initial prototypes cycled at approximately 1000 rounds-per-minute which would have emptied the 18-round magazine in under three seconds.  Attempts were made to lower the cycle rate with one prototype averaging a more manageable 700 rounds-per-minute.  However, due to this high rate of fire and the unusual design a more conventional design was eventually chosen, the Sterling Submachine Gun.  The MCEM 2’s revolutionary design would later be copied or at least influence later successful telescopic bolt designs like the Uzi. 

Image Source One
Image Source Two
Machine Carbine, Experimental Model No.2 (MCEM 2)
Like BSA’s EMC 1949 the MCEM 2 manufactured by Enfield was one of several attempts to design a new submachine gun to replace the STEN for the British military.  Like the EMC the Machine Carbine, Experimental Model 2 (MCEM 2) had some revolutionary design features.  
The MCEM 2 was designed by a Polish emigre, Lieutenant Jerzy Podsędkowski working at the Royal Small Arms Factory at Enfield  during the late 1940s.   It featured one of the first uses of a telescopic bolt, this dramatically shortened the length of the weapon by having part of the bolt surround the breech and part of the gun’s barrel rather than have the bolt behind the breech. 
The MCEM 2 was one of a series of experimental submachine guns developed by Enfield.  This series included the MCEM 1 designed by Harold Turpin, co-designer of the STEN gun, and a slightly more conventional design the MCEM 3.  There may have been up to as many as six MCEM designs.
The MCEM 2 fed from an 18-round box magazine which was loaded through the weapon’s pistol grip.  This feature coupled with the MCEM 2’s telescopic bolt are both also seen in the Uzi which was designed several years later.
The MCEM 2’s small size made it more of a machine pistol than a submachine gun, with its shoulder stock able to double as a canvas holster.  The grip magazine housing gave the short submachine gun stability making it easy to handle one handed.  The MCEM 2 would have made an excellent side arm for mobile troops, tank & crews - perhaps issued instead of a pistol or carbine.  
Chambered in 9mm and weighing just 2.5kg the MCEM 2 used a blowback action with the striker positioned at the rear of the receiver with a small portion of the bolt to the rear of the breech and the rest surrounding the barrel.   The initial prototypes cycled at approximately 1000 rounds-per-minute which would have emptied the 18-round magazine in under three seconds.  Attempts were made to lower the cycle rate with one prototype averaging a more manageable 700 rounds-per-minute.  However, due to this high rate of fire and the unusual design a more conventional design was eventually chosen, the Sterling Submachine Gun.  The MCEM 2’s revolutionary design would later be copied or at least influence later successful telescopic bolt designs like the Uzi. 

Image Source One
Image Source Two

Machine Carbine, Experimental Model No.2 (MCEM 2)

Like BSA’s EMC 1949 the MCEM 2 manufactured by Enfield was one of several attempts to design a new submachine gun to replace the STEN for the British military.  Like the EMC the Machine Carbine, Experimental Model 2 (MCEM 2) had some revolutionary design features.  

The MCEM 2 was designed by a Polish emigre, Lieutenant Jerzy Podsędkowski working at the Royal Small Arms Factory at Enfield  during the late 1940s.   It featured one of the first uses of a telescopic bolt, this dramatically shortened the length of the weapon by having part of the bolt surround the breech and part of the gun’s barrel rather than have the bolt behind the breech. 

The MCEM 2 was one of a series of experimental submachine guns developed by Enfield.  This series included the MCEM 1 designed by Harold Turpin, co-designer of the STEN gun, and a slightly more conventional design the MCEM 3.  There may have been up to as many as six MCEM designs.

The MCEM 2 fed from an 18-round box magazine which was loaded through the weapon’s pistol grip.  This feature coupled with the MCEM 2’s telescopic bolt are both also seen in the Uzi which was designed several years later.

The MCEM 2’s small size made it more of a machine pistol than a submachine gun, with its shoulder stock able to double as a canvas holster.  The grip magazine housing gave the short submachine gun stability making it easy to handle one handed.  The MCEM 2 would have made an excellent side arm for mobile troops, tank & crews - perhaps issued instead of a pistol or carbine.  

Chambered in 9mm and weighing just 2.5kg the MCEM 2 used a blowback action with the striker positioned at the rear of the receiver with a small portion of the bolt to the rear of the breech and the rest surrounding the barrel.   The initial prototypes cycled at approximately 1000 rounds-per-minute which would have emptied the 18-round magazine in under three seconds.  Attempts were made to lower the cycle rate with one prototype averaging a more manageable 700 rounds-per-minute.  However, due to this high rate of fire and the unusual design a more conventional design was eventually chosen, the Sterling Submachine Gun.  The MCEM 2’s revolutionary design would later be copied or at least influence later successful telescopic bolt designs like the Uzi. 

Image Source One

Image Source Two

Quick Update

I’m currently working on a few long form posts which I’m looking forward to posting and I’ve been working on a few site related things including a slight (but cool) url change and enabling google’s automatic page translation - so if your native language isn’t english and you use google chrome it should now give you the option to translate the whole site!  Pretty cool.

What assassination would you like to see covered next in the 'The Gun That Killed…' series?

The Historical Firearm’s New Mailing List Service

With many followers in different timezones with different ‘tumblring’ habits I thought a mailing list that sends highlights from Historical Firearms straight to your inbox might be useful for many followers/readers.   It will also allow readers who don’t have a tumblr account to receive updates about Historical Firearms content.

When you sign up to the mailing list you can choose exactly what you want to receive.  The choices are:

  1. The Weekly Recap straight to your inbox at the end of each week
  2. The Recap and several additional featured posts during the week
  3. Or a daily digest of the day’s content  

All you have to do is fill in your email address and name (optional) and then select what you would like to receive. All details will be kept confidential and will go no further than the Historical Firearms mailing list. I hope you’ll find the service useful and sign up.  Don’t hesitate to message me if you have any questions or suggestions.   

Subscribe here and never miss a post again!

(via historicalfirearms)

How A Handgun Works: Colt 1911

The above link takes you to an excellent breakdown of how the Colt 1911, and many other derivative pistols work.  It uses a series of animated .gifs to show the workings of the short recoil system and also explains how the pistol’s safety and trigger works.

Well worth a look.

Dreadnoughts

Illustration showing the equivalent number of planes and airships you could buy for the cost of a single Dreadnought battleship.

In their day (c.1905-1920) Dreadnoughts were super weapons, the equivalent of an aircraft carrier today.  They were faster, better armed and more advanced than any previous warship.  During the first two decades of the 20th century they became the centre of an arms race between the world’s most powerful navies.   When the Royal Navy first commissioned HMS Dreadnought in 1906 (see image #3) - they rendered every other ship in the world obsolete.  They were however, very, very expensive to build costing approximately £2,000,000 which when adjusted for inflation is roughly equal to £207,000,000 today.  


The just-launched HMS Dreadnought, 10th February 1906  (Source)

The primary difference between Dreadnought and earlier vessels which became known as ‘pre-dreadnoughts’ was the number of heavy guns Dreadnought carried.  Previously capital ships had been armed with a range of guns in various calibres from small deck guns, medium 6 and 8 inch turrets and a main armament of normally two 10 or 12 inch guns. Dreadnoughts replaced this array of various calibre guns with more heavy guns ranging between 9 and 12 inches.  The Lord Nelson class battleship which was replaced by the Dreadnought class for example carried two small 3-pounder deck guns, twenty-four quick firing 12-pounders, a medium armament of eight 9.2 inch guns and a main armament of four 12 inch guns. HMS Dreadnought however, boasted a main armament of ten 12 inch guns and twenty-seven 12-pounder deck guns as secondary armament. (see image #2)
The Dreadnoughts other major advantage was its improved steam-turbine powerplant which was able to give a top speed of 21 knots, making it the fastest battleship of that size when she was launched.  
With the launch of HMS Dreadnought Britain and Germany became embroiled in an arms race of who could build the most Dreadnoughts, By 1912, Britain was considering backing down due to the massive cost of building the battleships.  However, the British public, whipped up by the press, were outraged at the prospect of being overtaken by Imperial Germany and refused to lose face demanding construction of Dreadnoughts continue.  
Germany launched her first Dreadnought, SMS Nassau, in 1908.  The US launched USS South Carolina the same year and in 1911, France commissioned the Courbet.  By 1914, Britain had designed six classes of Dreadnoughts with 34 ships in commission in August 1914, while lagged behind Germany with 24 Dreadnoughts in commission.  


SMS Nassau (source)

The illustration above was published in a June 1911 edition of The Illustrated London News, the diagram itself was originally published in the Scientific American journal - the Dreadnought is actually the Delaware class USS North Dakota - hence the US ensign. The illustration shows how many aircraft can be bought for the equivalent cost of commissioning a new Dreadnought.  The illustration claims that ‘52 Dirigibles and 235 Aeroplanes’ could be bought in place of a new battleship.
Dreadnoughts remained the World’s most powerful naval vessels until the late 1920s when they themselves were made obsolete by newer faster, better armoured Battlecruisers.
Sources:

Illustration & Article Source
Image One Source
Image Two Source
Rise of the Dreadnought Battleship, 1906 to 1914, ed. G. Smith (Source)
Dreadnoughts

Illustration showing the equivalent number of planes and airships you could buy for the cost of a single Dreadnought battleship.

In their day (c.1905-1920) Dreadnoughts were super weapons, the equivalent of an aircraft carrier today.  They were faster, better armed and more advanced than any previous warship.  During the first two decades of the 20th century they became the centre of an arms race between the world’s most powerful navies.   When the Royal Navy first commissioned HMS Dreadnought in 1906 (see image #3) - they rendered every other ship in the world obsolete.  They were however, very, very expensive to build costing approximately £2,000,000 which when adjusted for inflation is roughly equal to £207,000,000 today.  


The just-launched HMS Dreadnought, 10th February 1906  (Source)

The primary difference between Dreadnought and earlier vessels which became known as ‘pre-dreadnoughts’ was the number of heavy guns Dreadnought carried.  Previously capital ships had been armed with a range of guns in various calibres from small deck guns, medium 6 and 8 inch turrets and a main armament of normally two 10 or 12 inch guns. Dreadnoughts replaced this array of various calibre guns with more heavy guns ranging between 9 and 12 inches.  The Lord Nelson class battleship which was replaced by the Dreadnought class for example carried two small 3-pounder deck guns, twenty-four quick firing 12-pounders, a medium armament of eight 9.2 inch guns and a main armament of four 12 inch guns. HMS Dreadnought however, boasted a main armament of ten 12 inch guns and twenty-seven 12-pounder deck guns as secondary armament. (see image #2)
The Dreadnoughts other major advantage was its improved steam-turbine powerplant which was able to give a top speed of 21 knots, making it the fastest battleship of that size when she was launched.  
With the launch of HMS Dreadnought Britain and Germany became embroiled in an arms race of who could build the most Dreadnoughts, By 1912, Britain was considering backing down due to the massive cost of building the battleships.  However, the British public, whipped up by the press, were outraged at the prospect of being overtaken by Imperial Germany and refused to lose face demanding construction of Dreadnoughts continue.  
Germany launched her first Dreadnought, SMS Nassau, in 1908.  The US launched USS South Carolina the same year and in 1911, France commissioned the Courbet.  By 1914, Britain had designed six classes of Dreadnoughts with 34 ships in commission in August 1914, while lagged behind Germany with 24 Dreadnoughts in commission.  


SMS Nassau (source)

The illustration above was published in a June 1911 edition of The Illustrated London News, the diagram itself was originally published in the Scientific American journal - the Dreadnought is actually the Delaware class USS North Dakota - hence the US ensign. The illustration shows how many aircraft can be bought for the equivalent cost of commissioning a new Dreadnought.  The illustration claims that ‘52 Dirigibles and 235 Aeroplanes’ could be bought in place of a new battleship.
Dreadnoughts remained the World’s most powerful naval vessels until the late 1920s when they themselves were made obsolete by newer faster, better armoured Battlecruisers.
Sources:

Illustration & Article Source
Image One Source
Image Two Source
Rise of the Dreadnought Battleship, 1906 to 1914, ed. G. Smith (Source)
Dreadnoughts

Illustration showing the equivalent number of planes and airships you could buy for the cost of a single Dreadnought battleship.

In their day (c.1905-1920) Dreadnoughts were super weapons, the equivalent of an aircraft carrier today.  They were faster, better armed and more advanced than any previous warship.  During the first two decades of the 20th century they became the centre of an arms race between the world’s most powerful navies.   When the Royal Navy first commissioned HMS Dreadnought in 1906 (see image #3) - they rendered every other ship in the world obsolete.  They were however, very, very expensive to build costing approximately £2,000,000 which when adjusted for inflation is roughly equal to £207,000,000 today.  


The just-launched HMS Dreadnought, 10th February 1906  (Source)

The primary difference between Dreadnought and earlier vessels which became known as ‘pre-dreadnoughts’ was the number of heavy guns Dreadnought carried.  Previously capital ships had been armed with a range of guns in various calibres from small deck guns, medium 6 and 8 inch turrets and a main armament of normally two 10 or 12 inch guns. Dreadnoughts replaced this array of various calibre guns with more heavy guns ranging between 9 and 12 inches.  The Lord Nelson class battleship which was replaced by the Dreadnought class for example carried two small 3-pounder deck guns, twenty-four quick firing 12-pounders, a medium armament of eight 9.2 inch guns and a main armament of four 12 inch guns. HMS Dreadnought however, boasted a main armament of ten 12 inch guns and twenty-seven 12-pounder deck guns as secondary armament. (see image #2)
The Dreadnoughts other major advantage was its improved steam-turbine powerplant which was able to give a top speed of 21 knots, making it the fastest battleship of that size when she was launched.  
With the launch of HMS Dreadnought Britain and Germany became embroiled in an arms race of who could build the most Dreadnoughts, By 1912, Britain was considering backing down due to the massive cost of building the battleships.  However, the British public, whipped up by the press, were outraged at the prospect of being overtaken by Imperial Germany and refused to lose face demanding construction of Dreadnoughts continue.  
Germany launched her first Dreadnought, SMS Nassau, in 1908.  The US launched USS South Carolina the same year and in 1911, France commissioned the Courbet.  By 1914, Britain had designed six classes of Dreadnoughts with 34 ships in commission in August 1914, while lagged behind Germany with 24 Dreadnoughts in commission.  


SMS Nassau (source)

The illustration above was published in a June 1911 edition of The Illustrated London News, the diagram itself was originally published in the Scientific American journal - the Dreadnought is actually the Delaware class USS North Dakota - hence the US ensign. The illustration shows how many aircraft can be bought for the equivalent cost of commissioning a new Dreadnought.  The illustration claims that ‘52 Dirigibles and 235 Aeroplanes’ could be bought in place of a new battleship.
Dreadnoughts remained the World’s most powerful naval vessels until the late 1920s when they themselves were made obsolete by newer faster, better armoured Battlecruisers.
Sources:

Illustration & Article Source
Image One Source
Image Two Source
Rise of the Dreadnought Battleship, 1906 to 1914, ed. G. Smith (Source)
Dreadnoughts

Illustration showing the equivalent number of planes and airships you could buy for the cost of a single Dreadnought battleship.

In their day (c.1905-1920) Dreadnoughts were super weapons, the equivalent of an aircraft carrier today.  They were faster, better armed and more advanced than any previous warship.  During the first two decades of the 20th century they became the centre of an arms race between the world’s most powerful navies.   When the Royal Navy first commissioned HMS Dreadnought in 1906 (see image #3) - they rendered every other ship in the world obsolete.  They were however, very, very expensive to build costing approximately £2,000,000 which when adjusted for inflation is roughly equal to £207,000,000 today.  


The just-launched HMS Dreadnought, 10th February 1906  (Source)

The primary difference between Dreadnought and earlier vessels which became known as ‘pre-dreadnoughts’ was the number of heavy guns Dreadnought carried.  Previously capital ships had been armed with a range of guns in various calibres from small deck guns, medium 6 and 8 inch turrets and a main armament of normally two 10 or 12 inch guns. Dreadnoughts replaced this array of various calibre guns with more heavy guns ranging between 9 and 12 inches.  The Lord Nelson class battleship which was replaced by the Dreadnought class for example carried two small 3-pounder deck guns, twenty-four quick firing 12-pounders, a medium armament of eight 9.2 inch guns and a main armament of four 12 inch guns. HMS Dreadnought however, boasted a main armament of ten 12 inch guns and twenty-seven 12-pounder deck guns as secondary armament. (see image #2)
The Dreadnoughts other major advantage was its improved steam-turbine powerplant which was able to give a top speed of 21 knots, making it the fastest battleship of that size when she was launched.  
With the launch of HMS Dreadnought Britain and Germany became embroiled in an arms race of who could build the most Dreadnoughts, By 1912, Britain was considering backing down due to the massive cost of building the battleships.  However, the British public, whipped up by the press, were outraged at the prospect of being overtaken by Imperial Germany and refused to lose face demanding construction of Dreadnoughts continue.  
Germany launched her first Dreadnought, SMS Nassau, in 1908.  The US launched USS South Carolina the same year and in 1911, France commissioned the Courbet.  By 1914, Britain had designed six classes of Dreadnoughts with 34 ships in commission in August 1914, while lagged behind Germany with 24 Dreadnoughts in commission.  


SMS Nassau (source)

The illustration above was published in a June 1911 edition of The Illustrated London News, the diagram itself was originally published in the Scientific American journal - the Dreadnought is actually the Delaware class USS North Dakota - hence the US ensign. The illustration shows how many aircraft can be bought for the equivalent cost of commissioning a new Dreadnought.  The illustration claims that ‘52 Dirigibles and 235 Aeroplanes’ could be bought in place of a new battleship.
Dreadnoughts remained the World’s most powerful naval vessels until the late 1920s when they themselves were made obsolete by newer faster, better armoured Battlecruisers.
Sources:

Illustration & Article Source
Image One Source
Image Two Source
Rise of the Dreadnought Battleship, 1906 to 1914, ed. G. Smith (Source)

Dreadnoughts

Illustration showing the equivalent number of planes and airships you could buy for the cost of a single Dreadnought battleship.

In their day (c.1905-1920) Dreadnoughts were super weapons, the equivalent of an aircraft carrier today.  They were faster, better armed and more advanced than any previous warship.  During the first two decades of the 20th century they became the centre of an arms race between the world’s most powerful navies.   When the Royal Navy first commissioned HMS Dreadnought in 1906 (see image #3) - they rendered every other ship in the world obsolete.  They were however, very, very expensive to build costing approximately £2,000,000 which when adjusted for inflation is roughly equal to £207,000,000 today.  

The just-launched HMS Dreadnought, 10th February 1906  (Source)

The primary difference between Dreadnought and earlier vessels which became known as ‘pre-dreadnoughts’ was the number of heavy guns Dreadnought carried.  Previously capital ships had been armed with a range of guns in various calibres from small deck guns, medium 6 and 8 inch turrets and a main armament of normally two 10 or 12 inch guns. Dreadnoughts replaced this array of various calibre guns with more heavy guns ranging between 9 and 12 inches.  The Lord Nelson class battleship which was replaced by the Dreadnought class for example carried two small 3-pounder deck guns, twenty-four quick firing 12-pounders, a medium armament of eight 9.2 inch guns and a main armament of four 12 inch guns. HMS Dreadnought however, boasted a main armament of ten 12 inch guns and twenty-seven 12-pounder deck guns as secondary armament. (see image #2)

The Dreadnoughts other major advantage was its improved steam-turbine powerplant which was able to give a top speed of 21 knots, making it the fastest battleship of that size when she was launched.  

With the launch of HMS Dreadnought Britain and Germany became embroiled in an arms race of who could build the most Dreadnoughts, By 1912, Britain was considering backing down due to the massive cost of building the battleships.  However, the British public, whipped up by the press, were outraged at the prospect of being overtaken by Imperial Germany and refused to lose face demanding construction of Dreadnoughts continue.  

Germany launched her first DreadnoughtSMS Nassau, in 1908.  The US launched USS South Carolina the same year and in 1911, France commissioned the Courbet.  By 1914, Britain had designed six classes of Dreadnoughts with 34 ships in commission in August 1914, while lagged behind Germany with 24 Dreadnoughts in commission.  

SMS Nassau (source)

The illustration above was published in a June 1911 edition of The Illustrated London News, the diagram itself was originally published in the Scientific American journal - the Dreadnought is actually the Delaware class USS North Dakota - hence the US ensign. The illustration shows how many aircraft can be bought for the equivalent cost of commissioning a new Dreadnought.  The illustration claims that ‘52 Dirigibles and 235 Aeroplanes’ could be bought in place of a new battleship.

Dreadnoughts remained the World’s most powerful naval vessels until the late 1920s when they themselves were made obsolete by newer faster, better armoured Battlecruisers.

Sources:

Illustration & Article Source

Image One Source

Image Two Source

Rise of the Dreadnought Battleship, 1906 to 1914, ed. G. Smith (Source)

Judging from the likes, replies and reblogs, on the earlier post, plenty of you love a good history book!

What are you currently reading? What’s your favourite history book?

How many of you out there are avid history books readers?

Recently I’ve been wondering how many of you guys who follow me are regular history book readers, are you in college, university, school and read for assignments or do you read for pleasure? Let me know below, feel free to list some books you’re reading/read recently or are favourites!

Historical Trivia: Pancho Villa - The Media Savvy Revolutionary

In January 1914, Mexican revolutionary leader Pancho Villa signed a deal with Hollywood’s Mutual Film Corporation, selling the rights to film his battles with government forces.  Mutual were perhaps best known for producing a number ofCharlie Chaplin films between 1916-17.  The deal negotiated by Villa saw Mutual pay $25,000 and 50% royalties on the profits earned from the newsreels featuring him and his men.  In return Villa promised Mutual that he would try to fight his battles during the day so they could be filmed.   The newsreels featuring the revolutionary proved popular across the US  making Villa a household name. 

Pancho Villa c.1914 (Source)

In May 1914, a feature film The Live of General Villa was released starring Villa as himself.  Produced by D.W. Griffith and featuring Raoul Walsh as a young Villa the film mixed actual footage filmed of Villa’s battles and footage later re enacted by his men for the cameras.  Sadly the film and most of its footage is lost.  

Between 1914 and 1917 dozens of journalists and photographers flocked to report and photograph Villa’s corner of the revolution making him the best known of the Mexican Revolution’s rebel leaders.  The money from the films provided much needed funding for Villa’s campaign and made Villa an iconic figure.

Glass Warriors: The Camera At War, (2005), D. Anderson

How many of you out there are avid history books readers?

Recently I’ve been wondering how many of you guys who follow me are regular history book readers, are you in college, university, school and read for assignments or do you read for pleasure? Let me know below, feel free to list some books you’re reading/read recently or are favourites!

Historical Trivia: Acclaim to Shame

In late September 1938, Britain’s Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain negotiated and signed the Munich Agreement with Germany’s Chancellor Adolf Hitler.  The agreement gave Germany control of the Sudetenland, originally a buffer zone between Germany and Czechoslovakia and also promised that Britain would not intervene if Germany invaded Czechoslovakia as had previously been agreed. Unsurprisingly no representatives of Czechoslovakia were present at the negotiations of the agreement.
The annexation of the Sudetenland was the latest in a succession of German territorial demands which had seen Germany’s borders expand rapidly to include the Rhineland and Austria. Europe and Britain especially had anticipated a bitter European war with a resurgent Germany.  With the signing of the agreement there was great relief and Chamberlain was hailed as a great statesman and received nearly 60,000 telegrams congratulating him on the negotiation of the agreement

On the 30th September Chamberlain arrived back in London landing at Heston Aerodrome where he made his now infamous proclamation that the agreement signaled ‘peace for our time’ in front Britain’s press.  The Munich Agreement effectively abandoned the independent state of Czechoslovakia to Nazi Germany, by October 1938 the Czechs were forced to capitulate with no resistance.
Less than a year later an emboldened Germany would invade Poland pushing Britain and her allies past breaking point causing Chamberlain to finally admit that his policy of appeasement had failed.  War was declared on the 1st September 1939, Chamberlain stepped down at Prime Minister nine months later.

Image Source

“The mechanical construction is very simple, the workmanship is well executed, and we are of the opinion that it is not liable to get out if working order.”

Extract from the report of an officer evaluating the Gatling Gun in tests at Washington Navy Yard in May & July 1863. 

Despite this glowing report the Gatling was not widely adopted by the US military, although it was privately purchased and saw limited service.  It was not until 1866, after the end of the US Civil War, that the Gatling Gun was officially adopted by the US Army.

Mr. Gatling’s Terrible Marvel, (2008), Julia Keller

“We Americans have no commission from God to police the world.”
President Benjamin Harrison, 1888, ironically a decade later the US embarked on a series of military interventions and occupations in the Caribbean, South and Central America, lasting over 30 years, which became known as the Banana Wars.

Q

Anonymous asked:

I didn't even know the US ever used a maxim

A

Yeah they kept it quiet didn’t they haha.  Actually they adopted two, the M1904 and the M1915 (post on the M1915 coming up soon).  The Maxim was actually the first true machine gun officially adopted by the US Army (the Colt-Browning M1895 was never formally adopted by the US Army).

Read about the Maxim Model of 1904 here